Tate Webb, Class of 1991, became the second Asburian to premier a film at the Sundance Film Festival. Webb, a professional editor of TV commercials, edited “The Poodle Trainer.”
Also in January Asbury’s Principal Licensure Program was approved by the Kentucky Education Standards Board.
On February 3, the 40th anniversary of the “Great Revival” was celebrated in chapel.
On February 4, the Virtual Learning Committee made its preliminary report at a forum on teaching technology.
Also in February Walden Media and 20th Century Fox invited professors Greg Bandy and Devin Brown to participate in a “Narnia Summit” in Los Angeles.
During the week of March 1-5, in conjunction with the Spring meeting of the Board of Trustees, the College hosted a number of special events to commemorate the official transition of Asbury from College to University. These culminated in the official announcement of the new status in an academic convocation in Chapel on Friday, March 4.
After that ceremony, the new University staged the largest group photograph in its history.
Also in March General Shaw Clifton of the Salvation Army visited campus and spoke in chapel and the Collegian won 40 awards at the annual convention of the Kentucky Intercollegiate Press Association.
The Asbury College March was updated to accommodate the change to university status. (The new version was first performed at the alumni reunion in June.)
In April the Tumbling Team celebrated its 45th anniversary.
The iPad was introduced.
The name of Asbury’s adult degree completion program was changed from ACHIEVE to “Adult Professional Studies [APS]” on August 30.
In September Brad Johnson became Director of Marketing and Communications (formerly the Public Relations Department.)
Also in September Dr Gray, Kentucky Governor Steve Beshear and a number of other leaders joined in a ribbon-cutting ceremony to open the improved, four-lane Highway 68 connecting Wilmore to Lexington. The new road replaced old Harrodsburg Road, once described as “one of the most beautiful and one of the most dangerous roads in Kentucky.”
Since 2007 Asbury’s enrollment had grown about seventeen percent, almost entirely because of new graduate and APS programs.
On September 10 the university sponsored the “Asbury Bowl,” to host the annual championship football game between the state’s two largest Christian high schools, Lexington Christian Academy and the Christian Academy in Louisville. Asbury used the event to strengthen relations with the two high schools. The university had a publicity and logo merchandise booth at the event. Asbury also agreed to sponsor the “LCA Athlete of the Week” for the season during broadcasts of LCA games over WJMM 99.1 FM in Versailles.
To celebrate the role of Asbury’s police mount team in the World Equestrian Games, the Art Department hosted a special juried exhibition called “The Horse,” which ran from September 20 to November 6. Artists were attracted nationwide to exhibit.
Also in September Bonne Banker was named academic dean, to begin January 1, 2011.
Asbury University sponsored a number of advertisements during the World Equestrian Games held on October 9, which were televised by WLEX TV Channel 18 (NBC).
On October 29-30 the Broadcast Communication Department premiered its own sitcom, “Friends Like You,” as part of the annual homecoming celebration.
As early as mid-October it was clear that Asbury’s exposure in the World Equestrian Games was a great success. The Police Horse Team was invited to perform their drill at several other important exhibitions, while the number of applications for the university’s equine program increased dramatically. Observers at the World Games praised the Asbury students’ kindness to the animals, hard work and their consistent integrity and performance skills.
Also in October the historic Wilmore Camp Meeting announced its move to the Asbury campus in July 2011. Supporters of the camp, which had languished in recent years, hoped the new campus setting would give the camp a “more contemporary appeal.”
On November 11, the school of education and the university admissions office jointly sponsored “College Awareness Day,” in support of the Black Achievers of Central Kentucky organization. Financed by a grant from the PNC Bank, more than 70 students in grades nine through twelve visited campus.
In December, as part of the university’s “Emancipation Project” which focused on human trafficking, university students decided to get into The Guinness Book of World Records for the number of people who could cram into a Volkswagen Beetle. (The record set in 2009 was seventeen.) The organizers pledged that however many they could cram into the car, they would set out to rescue the same number of victims of human trafficking in Lexington, in cooperation with the Lexington Rescue Mission.
On December 10 the art department opened a new Digital Art Laboratory.
Viaticum– a “new biannual journal of research and scholarship” for Asbury faculty—published its first issue. The project had the stated purpose of “advancing the conversation” between the Christian education and “divine subjects” such as film, environment and the “role of moral agency.”
In February Gary and Dorothy Kempf resigned as athletic director and head swimming coach, to take positions at Sterling College in Kansas. A few days later Dorothy was named “Appalachian Swimming Conference Coach of the Year” for the university’s fourth straight conference championship.
Also in February Will Shouse was named “Kentucky Intercollegiate Athletic Conference Basketball Coach of the Year,” for the school’s best season on recor4d, 11-2.
On March 2, Lori Baker, Class of 2003, won $55,000 and a trip to Belize on Wheel of Fortune.
Alex Keyser as named as new head swimming coach.
Also in March students, faculty and staff participated in a special day of fasting, called the “Day Acceptable to the Lord” (from Isaiah 58). 300 people missed dinner. The $950 in savings was donated to a clean water project in Haiti.
The Miller Center was formally opened on March 4, attended by a large crowd, including many members of the Miller family who had attended Asbury. The guest of honor was Dean Jones, Class of 1953. A week of “spirited events” followed. Later in March the American Family Radio program broadcast from the center for two days.
In April Dr Malinda Stull sponsored a demonstration in the student center, designed to show that the concept of “race” has only a thin basis in scientific fact, and is much overrated. The program centered on the “Race Machine,” which digitally manipulated portraits to show what any person looked like as a member of six different “races.” During this presentation the “eugenics” movement of the early 20th century was roundly condemned.
Dr Ben Carson was the commencement speaker on April 27, on the topic “Here for a Reason” (Romans 8:28). Carson was director of pediatric surgery at Johns Hopkins Children’s’ Center and a noted conservative leader.
Mark Perdue was named on May 9 as the new athletic director, to begin July 1. Formerly the athletic director at Spartanburg Methodist College, Perdue stated that he welcomed this career move as proof of “God’s hand at work.”
In May Professor David Wheeler of the journalism department published an article on Google that appeared on several other national news sites, including the Atlantic website. The article was entitled “Google Doesn’t Laugh: Saving witty headlines in the Age of SEO.” [“Search Engine Optimization.”] Wheeler also announced a new university class in blogging, to begin in the fall.
On June 8 pitcher Gardner Adams, Class of 2011, became the first Asbury athlete drafted by any professional sports team. He was taken by the Atlanta Braves in the 36th round.
On June 15 Guinness confirmed that the Asbury car-stuffing team had won the new world record. Twenty adults had somehow gotten into the little car. [See December 2010.]
On the same day Asbury’s new MSW degree was formally accredited by the Council of Social Work Education [CSWE]. This was only one of two such degrees offered by a private school in Kentucky. The accreditation came after a long and arduous process and was “extremely significant” for the Asbury degree. CSWE Accreditation was required for licensing in many states.
During Reunion Weekend June 24-26 Tripp Crosby, Class of 2001, an “award-winning commercial, music video and sketch comedy director, served as emcee. Noting that Christians take life entirely too seriously, Tripp declared on the contrary that Christians “should be the most joyful people on earth.”
On July 14 Dr Mark Troyer became Vice President for Enrollment Management, a new cabinet-level position.
Over the summer the Collegian staff produced a major redesign of the paper, changing it from a traditional broadsheet newspaper to tabloid-sized. with major changes in typeface, layout and the use of photographs and imagery.
The annual fall revival in September was announced as the continuation of a longstanding tradition, but with the difference that students from the past and present were asked to submit commentary about “what revival means to me.”
On September 24 the equine program hosted “Draft Horse Day” along with the surprising news that a number of horses were still used in farm work in the area. As part of the program the new “Mission Farm” was unveiled to demonstrate “sustainable agriculture for developing world missions.”
The music department announced the first String Fellowship Honors Clinic.
The new Asbury University Theater and Cinema Performance program was announced on October 10. Also in October the Salvation Army Student Fellowship band, choir and dance troupe put on a concern in aid of the restoration of Clark Chapel in the local Methodist Church.
The US Park Police announced it would buy Asbury police mounts.
Asbury University was recognized as a “Five-Star Champion of Character institution” for 2010-2011 by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics at the annual convention in Kansas City, Missouri.
The Great Commission Congress in November took for its theme “Empowered to Witness.” Confirming a new direction, the congress was not confined to foreign missions, but to “a life of mission at home and abroad.” There were representatives from missions in Kenya and Haiti, but also from three local churches and the Mission Society in downtown Lexington.
Also in November three Asbury students won awards at the annual meeting of the Kentucky Academy of Sciences.
In December the history honor society Phi Alpha Theta held a reception in the Library to honor Burnam Reynolds of the history department for the publication of Columbanus: Light in the Early Middle Ages.
Also in December Asbury senior Cato McKenzie was named Wing Commander of the US Air Force ROTC Cadet Wing at the University of Kentucky. This annual honor made McKenzie the commander of all the Air Force cadets in the program, which served all colleges in central Kentucky. He was the first Asbury student was chosen for this honor. He declared that his “biggest goal” in the new command was to be a “good witness for Christ.” In the same month two Asbury students, Keith Turner Class of 2013 and Caleb Wheat, Class of 2014, took part in the annual National Festival of Young Preachers held in Louisville on the 21st.
At year’s end the administration noted the contribution non-traditional programs were now making to Asbury University. “From graduate education to online and on-campus degree completion, Asbury’s non-traditional students form an essential component of the Asbury student body, committed to academic excellence and spiritual vitality in the unique places they find themselves.”
In January Steven Boven retired as Police Chief of Wilmore ; he was replaced by Bill Craig.
Dr Steven Wilcoxson was named new vice president for student development. Wilcoxson had twenty years of experience in the field, the latest as associate vice president and director of community relations at Union University in Jackson Tennessee.
Glenn Hamilton, Class of 1991, was promoted to vice president of operations.
The Collegian’s new look proved to be a great success. The paper’s redesign “drew national attention” and won awards at the annual Kentucky Intercollegiate Press Association convention. The Collegian staff were invited to present a workshop on redesign at the College Media Association at its March meeting in New York City.
Also in January Devin Brown was invited to serve for the second time as a judge for Christianity Today’s annual book awards.
David Wheeler appeared on “Q,” the Canadian Broadcasting Company’s arts and culture program, carried locally by PRI, to discuss his second Atlantic website article, on “The Slow Death of the Signature in the Pin-Code World.”
On February 3 Asbury University held the first faculty art show to be held in the newly expanded and redecorated art gallery on the second floor of the cafeteria. Rudy Medlock, professor emeritus of art, was among the presenters.
On March 1, Asbury and eleven other colleges and universities signed the charter for a new “Bluegrass Consortium of Higher Education.” The new organization had three stated purposes: to improve college and workplace readiness, exchange “best practices” and expand opportunities for international study.
Also in March Asbury’s police mount program and the Lexington mounted police hosted the annual conference of the North American Mounted Unit Commanders’ Association.
Doug Wilcoxson became vice president for student development.
The student government created “Legacy Games” to revive the tradition of healthy class competition. The games were aimed at the eager but non-athlete student. Competition was held on a class basis in such games as “water balloon launch,” capture the flag and dodge ball, along with more conventional sports. This was intended to “build traditions for people to talk about and remember.” Also included were a Rubik’s Cube contest and a cook-off using only ingredients found in the cafeteria.
Blue recycling bins were distributed in April as part of the Cornerstone Project emphasis on “stewardship.”
Sara Potter became Online Director.
On May 8 Shardonovan Crawford, Class of 2012, became the first black Asbury graduate to be commissioned an officer in the US Marine Corps.
Also in May the Asbury Eagles baseball team played for the first time in the NAIA tournament The opening round was held in South Carolina, The “magical season” came to an “abrupt end” when Asbury lost its first game.
The redesigned Collegian continued to gather attention, winning awards at the annual meeting of the National Society of News Design. Sponsor David Wheeler now proudly noted that Asbury was now placed among the leading journalism schools of the nation. Former editor Rich Lowry explained that the paper’s staff wanted to create something that “reflected our student body and showed a strong, consistent personality in layout and design.”
Construction began in June on the five-year Jewell Walk project, designed to connect the men’s’ residence halls, the Miller Center, the fine arts and science buildings. Glen Hamilton predicted this would “shape the center of our campus.” The project was to be funded over its lifetime by the alumni association and class reunion gifts.
Devin Brown’s latest book, The Christian World of The Hobbit was named “one of the year’s best” by the judges at the International Christian Retail Show in St. Louis.
Also in June Asbury’s new athletic program website was named best in the NAIA at the annual meeting of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletic Sports Information Directors.
On July 3 Dr Sherry Powers, Class of 1977, was named dean of the school of education; Verna Lowe became Dean of the School of Graduate & Professional Studies.
A major revision of the core curriculum was announced in August, to apply first to the coming 2012-2013 academic year. The reform came after a three-year discussion among faculty and administration about the “purpose and value of liberal arts education.” The new program reduced or restructured several elements in the existing liberal arts core of required courses (including, alas, history). The liberal arts core was renamed “foundational courses,” and included a new “liberal arts enrichment course.” Dan Strait of the English department directed the project, declaring that the new scheme would accommodate “strategic growth in course offerings” and be easier to evaluate.
In the fall Asbury had record enrollment again, and was ranked fourth among “Regional Colleges, South” in US News and World Report’s annual ranking. Asbury was the only Kentucky school in the top fifteen in the category. The school was also listed in the “Top Ten” of “Great Schools at Great Prices.” Asbury’s record-high retention and graduation rate were especially praised.
On September 28 the Kinlaw Library passed an “e-book milestone” by adding its 100,000th volume, to accompany the 130,000 printed ones in the collection.
Also in September, Asbury had a major part in the Equine Special Olympics at the Kentucky Horse Park in Lexington. The university presentation joined the special-needs young people from the Jessamine Connection program to the university’s new therapeutic riding/instruction class.
The biennial Wesleyan Heritage Conference was held. The series of meetings was entitled “The World is My Parish: Wesleyan Concerns for the World’s Most Vulnerable.” As part of the conference Paul Rader, Class of 1956, former General of the Salvation Army and president of Asbury, spoke in chapel on the “Wesleyan imperative from ‘belief to behavior.’ He emphasized the importance of liberal arts in providing “a more complete understanding of what it means to be human and to honor God with our minds and our bodies.” Rader lamented that pressure to “gear education toward lucrative employment” to the neglect of the liberal arts.
Also in October the New York Times Book Review praised Moral Minority: The Evangelical Left in an Age of Conservatism, a new book by David Swartz, who joined the history department in 2010.
Kay Fuller Rader, Class of 1957, reminded the audience at the Great Commission Congress in November that missions were a “consistent backdrop to life at Asbury.”
In the same month the Association of Independent Kentucky Colleges and Universities [AIKCU] presented Asbury with its annual award for “innovative use of technology for instructional purposes.”
On November 10 Paul Nesselroade, Class of 1989, resigned as head coach of women’s soccer, after a successful ten-year career. Nesselroade was chosen four different years as KIAC Coach of the Year .
In December the presentation of Handel’s Messiah, held every four years since 1991, was the last under the direction of Dr Bea Hill Holz, who retired at the end of the school year.
The Ichthus festival closed. The festival lost money since moving the program from April to June to avoid rainy weather. The move eliminated the large number of Asbury students whose volunteer labors and ministry proved to be indispensable. In any case the world of Christian rock had changed since Ichthus’s pioneer days.
On December 12, Charles Shepard II, Class of 1991, became the new vice president for institutional advancement.
Asbury established the endowed Business Scholars Program Scholarship on January 24, providing scholarships of $10,000 each to “support those who seek to impact the world for Christ in the market place.”
On February 1, Men’s and women’s lacrosse was announced in Mar, with recruitment for fall 2014-2015 to begin at once. This was intended to give the university a competitive advantage in recruitment. While a new sport, lacrosse was spreading rapidly into Kentucky high schools. For instance, every high school in Lexington had a team. Yet only five Kentucky colleges in the state offered lacrosse as a varsity sport. Asbury would be the sixth.
In February the university bookstore announced it was no longer ordering textbooks for class use. Books and class materials were readily available more conveniently online.
On February 11 Norman Reinhardt, Class of 2001, performed at the annual Artist’s Series on campus. Dr Bea Holz recalled his performance as a student in Messiah, which “transformed” the whole program. Reinhardt won an audition to the Metropolitan Opera while still a student and enjoyed a professional career after graduation which made him “singular among Asbury undergraduates.”
On the same day the James Graham Brown Foundation awarded a grant of $500,000 to the college of education to be the first college in Kentucky to collaborate in producing a “Virtual Teaching School.” By using “avatars” and iPads, students could learn classroom management without having to encounter real students.
In March the school hosted a reception on campus to honor Dr Phyllis Corbitt, Class of 1946, former missionary to the Congo, beloved local physician and campus medical director 1974-1998. Among the many tributes was that of Mayor Harold Rainwater, who declared that “if any town has ever had a hero, saint or legend, it’s her.”
On April 1 the university announced a large gift for major improvement to men’s baseball athletic facilities, given in honor of Dr Jiles E. Kirkland, Class of 1950. Kirkland, a beloved Florida pastor and long-time university trustee, was an avid baseball player as a student and a lifelong fan of the sport. Dr Gray declared that the gift would “allow us to dramatically expand our platforms for both athletic excellence and outreach to the community and region.”
On April 4 Dr Gray was part of a panel of leaders in Christian higher education that was taped for an episode of “Focus on the Family” in Plano Texas.
A “new commencement tradition” was announced in May, Starting with the current year there would be two commencements—one on Saturday morning in Hughes Auditorium for the graduate and degree-completion students, and another in the afternoon in the Luce Center for the traditional undergraduates.
On May 24 Dr William Hall, Class of 1991, was named Dean of the School of Graduate & Professional Studies, to begin July 1. Also in May Dr Verna Lowe was named Dean of the School of Education at Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond.
The “Paris Semester,” under the leadership of art professor Dr Linda Stratford, will allow students to live and study in France, earning fifteen hours of college credit, for the same cost as a semester at Asbury at home.
In June Asbury broadcast students won four “Student Production Awards” (“Student Emmys”) at the annual meeting of the Ohio Valley chapter of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. This was the highest total of such awards at once for Asbury, which earned nine such awards in the past seven years.
Also in June a new M.A. degree in communications arts (in “digital storytelling”) was announced.
On June 14 Sheryl Voigts was named as registrar. Previously Voigts served for five years as registrar at Asbury Theological Seminary.
On the same day Asbury and The Salvation Army announced they were becoming “Partners in Achievement,” with a major joint initiative. This would provide a means for every officer (minister) in the Army’s Eastern Territory to earn a bachelor’s degree in a new academic major specifically designed with the Army in mind: “Ministry Management with an emphasis on Nonprofit Administration.” Officers could apply their previous education—including the A.A, degree which each officer obtained in the Army’s own officer training program. The work was to be done largely on line, with week-long “intensives” in January in New York, and May in Kentucky. Provost Jon Kulaga noted how loudly this program, entirely financed by the Army, showed Army officers how much their leaders valued their service. In addition, it should encourage young people who are considering becoming officers.
During the discussions between Army leaders and university administration and the publicity that followed, much was made of the historic relationship between Asbury and the Army, which was unique not only in the US but in entire Army world. By June more than 500 Salvation Army students had attended Asbury. More than half of those became officers in the Army, many rising to high command, including many division and territorial leaders, three national commanders and one general.
On July 3, Mark Reyes, with seminary training and online technical experience, was named Salvation Army Coordinator for the officer program.
On July 12 the Asbury Academy program went online.
In August the first “Intercultural New Student Orientation” was launched. Starting three days ahead of orientation for ordinary new students, the new program was aimed at “different nationalities” and Americans who had been living abroad for the last three years.
Also in August Kentucky’s “First Lady” Jane Beshear, wife of the governor, was featured in a video made on campus for the Kentucky State Department of Travel and Tourism.” Mrs Beshear toured campus in the video and praised Asbury’s “nationally recognized programs” in film production and equine studies.
Early in the fall (September) the campus hosted a major “Celebration of C.S. Lewis,” presided over by Devin Brown, whose latest book A Life Observed: A Spiritual Biography of C. S. Lewis had received widespread praise. The special guest was Douglas Gresham, Lewis’ stepson.
Also in September the equine center doubled its training space with a new outdoor arena.
At Homecoming in October the new Kirkland Complex was introduced to campus guests.
In October Doug Smart, broadcasting professor and producer of Asbury’s sitcom “Friends Like You” began a “sitcom production class.” He noted that this was a “truly unique” course for a Christian college—for any college for that matter, as there were no more than “two or three” other similar programs in the whole country, and none outside the Los Angeles area.
As part of the Cornerstone Project, the speaker on “mission” in chapel October 17, employed the new approach to mission. He noted we must accept “a broader meaning of mission,” which can no longer been seen in terms of overseas service. Rather “mission” must be based upon the concept of “vocation,” which meant a calling “that unites every part of the Christian life in the work of expanding the Kingdom of God.”
Also in October the Kentucky Agricultural Commissioner, James Comer, visited campus to welcome Asbury into the “Kentucky Proud” family of schools who promised to use “locally sustainable agriculture” in the cafeteria. Asbury in fact was the first private college in the state to commit.
Also in October the university created the Center for Adventure Leadership, under Trent Ellsworth. The new center combined academic instruction, field experience and program administration. The new center became home to four separate programs: the “Adventure Leadership” minor and emphasis within the recreation major; “Asbury Outdoors,” a student club that sponsored activities like white-water rafting and rappelling; “Archways,” a pre-orientation camping trip in the Daniel Boone National Forest; and the Challenge Course, an “experiential learning program” that was intended to build teamwork.
During the “fall access event” (formerly “visit weekend”) in November, visitors often commented on the “warmth of the campus family”—a recurring theme.
Asbury graduate student Ashley Higgins was named “Young Social Worker of the Year in Kentucky,” by the state chapter of the National Association of Social Workers.
Asbury University became a “sister school” to Huanggang Middle School in Huizhou, China, during an eight-day trip by Asbury representatives to visit the school and “establish relationships with potential partner schools.” The new relationship would center upon a summer “English Language Immersion experience,” which older students from the middle school would live at Asbury for three weeks while studying to improve their English skills. Provost Jon Kulaga declared that this initiative was only part of Asbury’s new ”comprehensive vision for our involvement in the Pacific Rim, especially in China.” One goal was to attract Chinese students to Asbury.[Huizhou has nearly five million people in its jurisdiction and lies within the Pearl River Delta urban area near the southern coast of China–the largest built-up area in the world.]
Dr Ronald Holz, music, was honored in December by selection as the Teacher of the Year by the Kentucky Music Educators’ Association.
Also in December Lisa Harper, Class of 1990, became Director of Alumni Affairs, in place of Carolyn Ridley, Class of 1981, who became Senior Leadership Gifts Officer. The changeover was intended to come in phases during the spring of 2014.
Speaking on “Holiness” as one of the Asbury Cornerstones, “Assistant Director for Student Leadership Development” Heather Tyner declared that holiness was not merely a theory, but a lifestyle. It was demonstrated best by service to the community. She explained that as Asbury explored holiness and the other Cornerstones, in the context of academic and spiritual commitments, the school must adopt the “expression of those values” in order to “fit the times and the students at hand.”
In January Harold Rainwater was featured in the third edition of Kentucky Everyday Heroes by Steve Flairty, because of Rainwater’s “approachability, kindness and humility.”
Also in January a new School of Business was announced, which would offer a business major and minor and an online MBA degree. Michael Kane was named as dean of the new school.
On January 29 Doug Wilcoxson announced his resignation from Asbury, so he could accept the position of Executive Vice President at Spring Arbor College. His replacement as vice president for student development was Sarah Baldwin, Class of 1993.
On February 4 Ross O. Bridewell died, aged 90. Bridewell was a retired Spanish professor who served for a number of years in the US military, retiring with the rank of Major. Bridewell was the last Asbury faculty member who served in WWII.
In the same month Katelyn Auvenshine Cooper graduated from Air Force Officer Training School at Maxwell AFB in Alabama with highest honors, was commissioned 2nd Lt.
Dr Timothy Campbell, Class of 1999, was named as new academic dean, to replace Bonnie Banker upon her coming retirement in May. Campbell was formerly director of planning and research for the college of education at Central Michigan University.
On February 11 29 media communication majors with three professors, along with seven journalism students, arrived in Sochi, Russia, to cover the Winter Olympics. The media students provided technical support to broadcast operations, while the journalism students recorded items for broadcast on LEX18, Lexington’s NBC channel.
On March 28, the new Howard Dayton School of Business was dedicated with a formal ceremony in chapel and an afternoon symposium with the school’s namesake, funder of Compass Ministries and additional major supporters of the school: Peter L. Ochs, Jess Correll, Class of 1977, and Samuel Mitchell, Jr.